The word entrepreneur is derived from a French word Entrepreneur which means to undertake. It is also defined as one who undertakes a commercial enterprise and who is an organizational creator and innovator. He is a person who introduces something new into an economy. The concept of entrepreneurship is not new, but the dimension of women entrepreneurs is a new prism to see and analyze the concept. To be an entrepreneur, the most effective thing to understand is entrepreneurial behavior. It is about using resources beyond the immediate reach of the entrepreneur and his company. However, for a gender-specific venture, this concept may include certain reservations. The literature defines women entrepreneurs as those who use their knowledge and resources to develop and create new business opportunities, who actively participate in the management of their business, who own at least 50% of their business and have more than one year in operation.
The following theoretical approaches to female entrepreneurship show that this idea has not caught on all over the world and that women entrepreneurs face difficulties in operating in the current environment. These approaches include:
Economic Paradigm: This paradigm assumes that entrepreneurs are economists. They have an inherent ability to transform old capital into higher profits through the use of capitalist strategies such as reinvestment. Thus, with this criterion, they hinder the inclusion of women in the entrepreneurial process. There are contextual scenarios that make it difficult for women to focus solely on the economic paradigm. It also makes it difficult and filters entrants to experience entrepreneurship.
Religious Paradigm: This school of thought believes that entrepreneurship arose as a result of religious virtue. In the previous century, Calvinism was a Christian sect that valued thrift, reinvestment, and hard work. The devotees of this sect are considered the first entrepreneurs since they assumed the risk of developing their own businesses due to its teachings. Therefore, this point of view suggests that an entrepreneur is someone who works hard and shows perseverance.
Psychological Paradigm: This paradigm says that the emergence of entrepreneurs is the result of psychological characteristics, such as a specific set of personal qualities that make them more suitable for success. The most dominant trait is the need for achievement. This is a driving force that makes a person motivated towards ambition, goal setting, planning and adapting to changes. An entrepreneur thus rises as a leader, takes risks and has the necessary energy to manage it. Entrepreneurs will be those who have this personality and these traits will lead them to venture into self-employment.
Simply put, these approaches are universal. These paradigms are in one way or another the drivers and paternalists of the need for equality between men and women to allow both to reap the benefits of being entrepreneurs. They are the universal prerequisites for any gender to use to their advantage. However, certain social and cultural influences shape the contextual environments that prevent both men and women from realizing their full potential. This situation is harmful not only for individuals but also for countries because women who are half of the world’s population cannot be ignored.