What Is the Application Of The NOR Gate?
The basic blocks of digital systems are logic gates. They are mostly employed as switches to conduct logical operations. Logic Gates are used to implement Boolean Functions. A Logic Gate receives data and works according to a set of rules. When a condition is true, it turns on, and when the condition is false, it turns off. A Truth Table is used to express the function of a Logic Gate. It shows all conceivable input combinations, with a column next to each row displaying the associated output value. With any number of inputs, a single output with a time delay is produced.
The NOR gate is a digital logic gate that implements logical NOR. It acts in accordance with the truth table on the right. If both inputs to the gate are LOW, the output is high, if one or both inputs are high, the output is low. The negation of the OR operator results in NOR. It can also be thought of as the inverse of an AND gate in other ways. NOR is a functionally complete operation, meaning that any logical function can be generated by combining NOR gates. This is a trait that it shares with the NAND gate. The OR operator, on the other hand, is monotonic since it can only change Low to High and not the other way around. The negation is provided for free in most, but not all, circuit implementations, including CMOS and TTL. OR is the more difficult operation in such logic families and it may use a NOR followed by a NOT. Some instances of the domino logic family are notable exceptions. Each of the 4,100 integrated circuits (IC) in the original Apollo Guidance Computer contained only two 3-input NOR gates.
The NOR gate and the NAND gate both have the attribute of functional completeness. That is, NOR gates can be used to build any other logic function (AND, OR, etc.). NOR gates can be used to build a full CPU. Since NAND gates are likewise operationally complete, if no specialised NOR gates are available, NAND logic can be used to create one.
2 Input Transistors NOR Gate:
Two transistors are utilised to build a NOR gate with two inputs. The collector of the first transistor is connected to a 6 volt circuit driving voltage, and the collector of the second transistor is parallelly coupled to the same supply voltage. Then the two resistors are connected to the NOR gate’s inputs. Two transistors’ emitters are connected to ground as a group. The output is gathered at the supply voltage node, resistor, and first transistor collector. A single transistor designed NOR gate is an alternative design method for NOR gates. Through resistors, the transistor’s base is supplied with two parallelly linked inputs. The collector is connected to the circuit driving voltage of +6 Volts, while the emitter is linked to ground. The transistor’s output is gathered at the collector end.
Universal NOR Gate:
The NOR logic gate is considered to be a universal logic gate. By changing the input side of this gate, it can function as any of the basic logic gates. For the most part, NAND gates to NOR gates are preferred when creating fundamental logic gates.
Applications of the NOR Gate:
EX-OR gates and other real-time applications can be built using logic NOR gates. ‘Mixer tank’ is one of its real-time uses. A 3-input NOR gate is used to control the flow of materials in a mixer tank. Different types of ingredients are held in different Hoopers. At the bottom of each cylinder, there is a capacitive proximity switch. This is used to determine the quantity or level of a substance.
The cylinder produces High level logic output when the ingredients reach the sensor level. When all of the constituents have been reduced to the sensor level, all of the NOR gate’s inputs will be set to high. The power converter is attached to this output, and the Motor is connected to the power converter to mix the ingredients. The NOR logic gate’s HIGH output activates the power converter, which then powers the motor, causing it to run and mix all of the materials.
Logic gate implementations:
Most logic gates have been produced with Complementary Metal oxide semiconductor technology, which uses both NMOS and PMOS transistors, since the 1990s. A single integrated circuit can have millions of logic gates. Resistor–diode logic, DTL diode–transistor logic, TTL transistor–transistor logic, and CMOS are some of the logic families with varied features such as power consumption, speed, cost, and size. There are additional sub-variants, such as normal CMOS logic and advanced varieties that use the same CMOS technology as normal CMOS logic but with various optimizations to avoid speed loss due to slower PMOS transistors.